Medical Modules.

Module I

Physics - Physical world and measurement, kinematics, laws of motion, work, energy and power.

Chemistry- Stoichiometry, structure of atom, classification of elements and periodicity in properties,chemical and molecular structure, states of matter: gases and liquids.

Biology -  Diversity of Living Organism

 Botany

      What is living? biodiversity;need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy & systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological  parks, erbaria, botanical gardens. Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into ajor groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae,              ryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification up to class, characteristic features and examples

Zoology                             

Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and protozoa, porifera, coelentreta, platyhelminthies, aschelminthies, annelida, arthopoda, echinodermata. A brief account of chordates upto classes level.

Module II                                               

Physics - Motion of system of particles and rigid body.

Chemistry - Thermodynamics, equilibrium, redox reactions.

Biology -  

Botany

Morphology and modifications; tissues; anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence; cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed and revision of module

Zoology.

Animal tissues; morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach), Earthworm and Frog. Unit II: Structural Organisation in Animals Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Module III

Physics - Gravitation, properties of bulk matter.

Chemistry - Hydrogen, s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals), some p-block elements, environmental chemistry.

Biology -  Cell Structure and Function

Botany

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Zoology

Digestion and absorption: alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea. Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders. Body fluids and circulation: composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; ardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - ypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Botany

Cell division : cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Module IV

Physics -  Thermodynamics, behaviour of perfect gas and kinetic theory, oscillations and waves.

Chemistry - Organic chemistry- some basic principles and techniques, hydrocarbons.

Biology -     Plant Physiology

Botany

Transport in plants; movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis: photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of hotosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration: exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, ermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratroy quotient. Plant growth and development: seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Human Physiology

Zoology

Locomotion and movement: types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout. Neural control and coordination: neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;  generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and function of eye and ear. Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads;

Module V

Physics -  Electrostatics, current electricity.

Chemistry -  Solid state, solutions, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics.

Biology -     Reproduction

Botany

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction-A sexual and sexual reproduction; ModesBinary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plant: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; PollenPistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Zoology

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Module VI

Physics -    Magnetic effects of current and magnetism, electromagnetic induction and alternating currents, electromagnetic waves.

Chemistry -  Surface chemistry, general principles and processes of isolation of elements, p- block elements

Biology -    Genetics and Evolution

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human ganeome project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Module VII

Physics -   Optics, dual nature of matter and radiation.

Chemistry - d and f block elements, coordination compounds, haloalkanes and haloarenes, alcohols, phenols and ethers

Biology -  Zoology

Biology and Human Welfare

Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse. Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

Botany

Biotechnology and Its Applications Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals;

Biosafety issues- Biopiracy and patents.

Module VIII

Physics -   Atoms and nuclei, electronic devices.    

Chemistry -  Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, organic compounds containing nitrogen, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life.

Biology-       Botany / Zoology                   

Ecology and Environment

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributesgrowth, birthrate and death rate, age distribution.Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.