MEDICAL

Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship), or training to become a Physician Assistant. Medical education and training vary considerably across the world. Various teaching methodologies have been utilized in medical education, which is an active area of educational research.

Modules for Medical

Physics - Physical world and measurement, kinematics, laws of motion, work, energy, and power.

Chemistry - Stoichiometry, structure of atom, classification of elements and periodicity in properties, chemical and molecular structure, states of matter: gases and liquids.

Biology - Diversity of Living Organism

Botany - What is living? biodiversity; need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy & systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens. Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroid’s. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification up to class, characteristic features, and examples

Zoology - Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and protozoa, porifera, coelentera, Platyhelminthes, aschelminths, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata. A brief account of chordates up to classes level.

Physics - Motion of system of particles and rigid body.

Chemistry - Thermodynamics, equilibrium, redox reactions.

Botany - Morphology and modifications; tissues; anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence; cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed and revision of module

Zoology - Animal tissues; morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach), Earthworm and Frog. Unit II: Structural Organization in Animals Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Physics - Gravitation, properties of bulk matter.

Chemistry - Hydrogen, s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals), some p-block elements,

Biology - Cell Structure and Function, Cell division: cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, and their significance.

Botany - Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Zoology - Digestion and absorption: alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea. Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders. Body fluids and circulation: composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: modes of excretion - ammoniotelic, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Physics - Thermodynamics

Chemistry - Organic chemistry- some basic principles and techniques, hydrocarbons.

Biology - Plant Physiology

Botany - Transport in plants; movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis: photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration: exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient. Plant growth and development: seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalization; photoperiodism. Human Physiology

Zoology - Locomotion and movement: types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout. Neural control and coordination: neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and function of eye and ear. Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads.

Physics - Electrostatics, current electricity.

Chemistry - Solid state, solutions, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics.

Biology - Reproduction

Botany - Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction-A sexual and sexual reproduction; Modes Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plant: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies, and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Zoology - Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Physics - Magnetic effects of current and magnetism, electromagnetic induction and alternating currents, electromagnetic waves.

Chemistry - Surface chemistry, general principles, and processes of isolation of elements, p- block elements

Biology - Genetics & Evolution, Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Hemophilia, Color blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Physics - Optics, dual nature of matter and radiation.

Chemistry - d and f block elements, coordination compounds, haloalkanes and haloarenes, alcohols, phenols, and ethers

Biology - Zoology

Biology and Human Welfare - Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug, and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

Botany - Biotechnology and Its Applications Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals.

Biosafety Issues - Biopiracy & patents

Physics - Atoms and nuclei, electronic devices.

Chemistry - Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, organic compounds containing nitrogen, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life.

Biology - Botany/Zoology

Ecology & Environment - Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population, and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birthrate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.