Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship), or training to become a Physician Assistant. Medical education and training vary considerably across the world. Various teaching methodologies have been utilized in medical education, which is an active area of educational research.
Physics - Physical world and measurement, kinematics, laws of motion, work, energy, and power.
Chemistry - Stoichiometry, structure of atom, classification of elements and periodicity in properties, chemical and molecular structure, states of matter: gases and liquids.
Biology - Diversity of Living Organism
Botany - What is living? biodiversity; need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy & systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens. Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroid’s. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification up to class, characteristic features, and examples
Zoology - Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and protozoa, porifera, coelentera, Platyhelminthes, aschelminths, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata. A brief account of chordates up to classes level.
Physics - Motion of system of particles and rigid body.
Chemistry - Thermodynamics, equilibrium, redox reactions.
Botany - Morphology and modifications; tissues; anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence; cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed and revision of module
Zoology - Animal tissues; morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach), Earthworm and Frog. Unit II: Structural Organization in Animals Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.
Physics - Gravitation, properties of bulk matter.
Chemistry - Hydrogen, s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals), some p-block elements,
Biology - Cell Structure and Function, Cell division: cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, and their significance.
Botany - Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Zoology - Digestion and absorption: alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea. Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders. Body fluids and circulation: composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: modes of excretion - ammoniotelic, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.
Physics - Thermodynamics
Chemistry - Organic chemistry- some basic principles and techniques, hydrocarbons.
Biology - Plant Physiology
Botany - Transport in plants; movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis: photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration: exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient. Plant growth and development: seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalization; photoperiodism. Human Physiology
Zoology - Locomotion and movement: types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout. Neural control and coordination: neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and function of eye and ear. Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads.
Physics - Electrostatics, current electricity.
Chemistry - Solid state, solutions, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics.
Biology - Reproduction
Botany - Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction-A sexual and sexual reproduction; Modes Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plant: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies, and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Zoology - Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Physics - Magnetic effects of current and magnetism, electromagnetic induction and alternating currents, electromagnetic waves.
Chemistry - Surface chemistry, general principles, and processes of isolation of elements, p- block elements
Biology - Genetics & Evolution, Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Hemophilia, Color blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Physics - Optics, dual nature of matter and radiation.
Chemistry - d and f block elements, coordination compounds, haloalkanes and haloarenes, alcohols, phenols, and ethers
Biology - Zoology
Biology and Human Welfare - Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug, and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Botany - Biotechnology and Its Applications Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals.
Biosafety Issues - Biopiracy & patents
Physics - Atoms and nuclei, electronic devices.
Chemistry - Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, organic compounds containing nitrogen, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life.
Biology - Botany/Zoology
Ecology & Environment - Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population, and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birthrate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.